In this article, we’ll be looking at the top 10 most dangerous countries in Africa. To determine these countries, we will be making use of the GPI. This is a way to compare the peacefulness of different countries. During the last decade, the Global Peace Index (GPI) has shown a rise in violence around the globe.
The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) created and released this Global Peace Index report, To generate the final rankings and report, a distinguished worldwide panel of peace specialists is consulted.
These professionals from peace organizations rely on data from the Economist Intelligence Unit. This index was first introduced in 2009. Each report is released once a year since then. In the initial year, only 121 nations and territories were included in the comparison.
What Is the GPI and How Does It Work?
The GPI index works by precisely quantifying peacefulness on a national and regional level. GPI investigates the extent to which the country is entangled in ongoing foreign and domestic violence. It looks at the level of harmony in a country versus the level of discord.
The GPI rankings are based on eight main peaceful foundations. The following are some of them:
- A business climate that is stable
- competent government
- Human rights acceptance
- Information that flows freely
- excellent international ties and acceptance of others’ rights in society
- Lower levels of corruption
- Human capital at higher levels
- Distribution of national resources in an equitable manner
Lower levels of corruption, competent government, excellent international ties, and acceptance of others’ rights in society are the most crucial of these pillars in countries that are experiencing violence.
RELATED: TOP 10 SAFEST COUNTRIES IN AFRICA
Which African countries are the most dangerous?
So, which countries in Africa are not safe to visit? According to the Global Peace Index, Somalia, South Sudan, and the Central African Republic, as well as Libya, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Nigeria, and Mali, are the most dangerous countries in Africa in 2020.
The ranking is based on the present state of the economy, politics, governance, and crime data. It is not advisable to travel alone in these nations, and you should be accompanied by a local police guide.
Following that, we’ll look at the ten most dangerous countries on the African continent in 2021. Unfortunately, when compared to all other countries in the globe, the majority of these countries rank around the bottom of the GPI index rankings.
Top 10 Most Dangerous Countries In Africa
10. Ethiopia (GPI – 139)
Ethiopia is the world’s most populous landlocked country, It is bordered on the north by Eritrea and Djibouti, on the northeast by Somaliland, on the east by Somalia, south by Kenya, west by South Sudan, and northwest by Sudan.
As the world’s 12th most populous country, Ethiopia has a total land area of 1,100,000 square kilometers (420,000 square miles) and a population of over 117 million people. Addis Ababa, the country’s capital and largest city, is located few kilometers west of the East African Rift.
Ethiopia’s economy was hampered by civil war in the 1970s and 1980s, but it has since recovered and, as of 2010, has the greatest GDP in East Africa. It remains, however, one of the world’s poorest countries, suffering from poverty, hunger, corruption, poor infrastructure, a lack of respect for human rights, and limited access to health and education, with a literacy rate of only 49%, ranking it in the lower range of the Human Development Index.
Cameroon, formally the Republic of Cameroon (French: République du Cameroun), is a West African country. It is bounded on the west by Nigeria, on the northeast by Chad, on the east by the Central African Republic, and on the south by Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo.
Cameroon’s shoreline is located on the Gulf of Boni, which is part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Because of its geographical and cultural variety, this nation is frequently described as “Africa in miniature.” In 1884, Cameroon became a German colony.
Following World War I, the region was split between France and the United Kingdom and assigned to the League of Nations. The UPC political party advocated independence, but it was banned by France in the 1950s and fought a war against France and UPC forces until 1971.
Cameroon is politically and socially stable in comparison to other African countries. Agriculture, roads, trains, petroleum, and big wood businesses all benefited from this. However, many Cameroonians are subsistence farmers and live in poverty.
8. Nigeria (GPI – 146)
There is a declaration in the country’s constitution that it is a democratic and secular society. On October 1, 1960, the once-British colony became an independent nation. An armed conflict gripped the country from 1967 to 1970.
A democracy with civilian governments has alternated with military dictatorships since the end of the civil war. After a long period of dictatorship, the country finally achieved a stable democracy in 1999. That year, the international community hailed Nigeria’s first fair and free presidential election.
For its large size as well as its robust economy, Nigeria has been named the “Giant of African Countries”. More than 206 million people live in the country, making it the most populous country in Africa, and the ninth most populous nation-state in the world.
7. Mali (GPI – 148)
Mali is the 8th largest country in Africa by landmass. Since January 2012, Mali has been involved in armed conflict. Mali’s north was seized by Tuareg rebel groups that year. By April, they had declared Azawad as their own country. Due to a military takeover in March of the same year, the conflict grew even more intense.
Fighting broke out between the Tuareg and several rebel groups. Mali requested assistance from its previous colonial masters, the French. By January 2013, France had launched a military expedition known as Operation Serval. The majority of the northern rebel region was retaken by French-led Malian national forces in less than a month.
Mali is one of the most dangerous countries to visit in Africa. The country went to the polls on July 28th, 2013, and the second round of the run-off election was held on August 11th. On November 24th and December 15th of the same year, they held legislative elections.
6. Sudan – (GPI – 153)
Sudan is the 6th least safe country in Africa. Sudan became an independent country in 1956. Since then, it has been ruled by a series of insecure military regimes that alternate with parliamentary democracies. Under Gaafar Nimeiry’s leadership, the government adopted strict Islamic Sharia law in 1983. It merely heightened tensions between the Islamic north and the Christian south.
Rivalries over religious beliefs, language, and political authority erupted into a bloody civil war between government soldiers backed by the National Islamic Front and southern rebels backed by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army. This only came to an end in 2011, when South Sudan obtained full independence from the north.
Sudan had been subjected to a 30-year military dictatorship under the leadership of Omar al-Bashir until 2019. In 2003, his governance choices resulted in a Darfur Region war. Ethnic genocide has been charged against the leader. Between 300,000 and 400,000 villagers were slain by the army in the end. On April 11th, 2019, Bashir was deposed in a successful coup.
5. Central Africa Republic (GPI – 155)
In 1960, the Central African Republic gained independence. It was thereafter ruled by a succession of dictators, including a brief effort at monarchy. The need for democracy in the 1990s prompted the country to have its first multi-party elections in 1993.
Ange-Felix Patasse was the first democratically elected president. During a coup in 2003, he was deposed by General Francois Bozize. The Bush War broke out in the Central African Republic the next year. Despite the signing of peace deals in 2007 and 2011, the civil war erupted again in 2012.
By the year 2020, the Central African Republic is still involved in a civil war that has yet to see a meaningful peace since it began in 2012. Despite having major valued minerals and resources like crude oil, diamonds, gold, uranium, timber, cobalt, and hydropower, as well as huge amounts of arable land, the country remains one of the world’s ten poorest countries.
4. Libya (GPI – 156)
Libya is Africa’s fourth-largest country in terms of land area. The Islamic country is also the world’s 16th largest land area. Libya also has the ninth-largest proven oil reserves on the planet. Tripoli, the country’s capital and largest city, is located on the northwest coast.
In 1951, the country declared independence from Italy. From 1951 to 1969, it was a kingdom ruled by King Idris I, Muammar Gaddafi overthrew the king in a “bloodless coup” at this point. He was the leader of the Libyan Cultural Revolution from 1973 to 2011 when he was killed in the Libyan Civil War.
Unfortunately for Libya, the country has not seen true peace since the Libyan Civil War began. A second civil war erupted in Tripoli, this time between the western-backed government and the eastern-backed government of Tobruk.
The involvement of several Islamic and tribal militias has made it even more brutal. To this day, talks to resolve the second civil war are ongoing.
3. Democratic Republic of Congo (GPI – 157)
Sub-Saharan Africa’s largest country. This Congo (previously known as Zaire) is also the world’s 11th largest country in terms of land area. With an estimated population of 84 million people, it is the continent’s largest French-speaking country and fourth-largest by population.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is also the world’s 16th most populous country. Since 2015, there has been a persistent military conflict in Kivu’s eastern area. Despite several centuries of colonial exploitation and thievery by the Belgians and their imperialist King Leopold, this country has been unable to profit from its immense natural resources due to weak infrastructure, political instability in government, severe corruption, and minimal growth.
2. Somalia – (GPI – 158)
Somalia is also one of Africa’s most dangerous countries. On the African continent, Somalia, with its 15 million residents, has been described as having the most uniform culture. About 85% of the population claims to be Somali.
Several ethnic groups dwell in Somalia’s southern regions. Somali and Arabic are Somalia’s official languages. Sunnis make up the bulk of the population, who follow the Islamic faith. To establish the Somali Democratic Republic, the Supreme Revolutionary Council seizes control in 1969.
This occurred in 1991, some 22 years after the event. A decade of civil war shattered its foundations. In the aftermath of this civil war, the bulk of the country’s regions returned to religious, traditional law.
Several federal agencies had been established by the turn of the century. During the second half of 2012, the insurgents lost the majority of their land (which they had been able to gain during the prior decades).
The result was an attempt to establish democracy. A provisional constitution was adopted in August of 2012. In the same month and year, the Federal Government of Somalia was established.
1. South Sudan (GPI – 160)
South Sudan is the most dangerous country in Africa. South Sudan is Africa’s newest republic, having successfully gained its independence from Sudan in 2011. South Sudan’s independence vote, which was endorsed by the international community, received 98.83 percent of the vote.
Unfortunately, from 2013 until February 22nd, 2020, the country was ravaged by ethnic strife and eventually civil war. At this moment, Riek Machar and Salva Kiir, the two rival claimants, agreed to a unity deal in which they would establish a coalition government
The country, which is mostly made up of Nilotic tribes, has a population of 12 million people, making it one of the world’s youngest countries. A quarter of the population is under the age of eighteen.
The majority of the population is Christian, with a tiny minority of people practising traditional African tribal religions.
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